Chittor Fort Chittorgarh - Tourist Attraction Place Rajasthan

Chittor Fort Chittorgarh: History

It is believed that The Fort of Chittorgarh was built by Chitrangad Mori of the Maurya dynasty way back in the 7th century A.D. Later, Bappa Rawal, the founder of Mewar dynasty, made Chittorgarh his capital and rebuilt it. Another folk legend attributes the construction of fort to the legendary hero Bhima of the Pancha Pandavas. it states that Bhima struck the ground here, which resulted in water springing up to form a large reservoir. The water body allegedly formed by Bhima is an artificial tank called Bhimlat Kund.

Chittor Fort Chittorgarh: Structure

The Chittor Fort or Chittorgarh is the largest fort in India. This Monument was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site as the Hill Forts of Rajasthan at the 37th session of the World Heritage Committee held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia In 2013. The fort was the capital of Mewar. It is located in the present-day town of Chittor. The fort stands on a hill 180 m (590.6 ft) high. It is situated on the left bank of the Berach river (a tributary of the Banas River). It spread over an area of 280 ha (691.9 acres) above the plains of the valley. That has a circumference of 13 km (8.1 mi) with a maximum length of 5 km (3.1 mi) and it covers an area of 700 acres. This fort is linked to the new town of Chittorgarh (known as the 'Lower Town') developed in the plains after 1568 AD. The fort precinct has several historical palaces, gates, temples and two prominent commemorative towers.

when the fort was deserted in light of introduction of artillery in the 16th century, and therefore the capital was shifted to more secure Udaipur, located on the eastern flank of Aravalli hill range. Mughal Emperor Akbar attacked and sacked this fort which was but one of the 84 forts of Mewar, but the capital was shifted to Aravalli hills where heavy artillery & cavalry were not effective. A winding hill road of more than 1 km (0.6 mi) length from the new town leads to the west end main gate, called Ram Pol, of the fort. Within the fort, a circular road provides access to all the gates and monuments located within the fort walls.

The fort that once boasted of 84 water bodies has only 22 of them now. These water bodies are fed by natural catchment and rainfall, and have a combined storage of 4 billion litres that could meet the water needs of an army of 50,000. The supply could last for four years. These water bodies are in the form of ponds, wells and step wells.

Chittor Fort Chittorgarh: Attractions at the Fort

The fort, which is roughly in the shape of a fish. The fort complex comprises 65 historic built structures, among them 4 palace complexes, 19 main temples, 4 memorials, and 20 functional water bodies. The ascent to the fort passes through seven gateways built by the Mewar ruler Rana Kumbha of the Sisodia clan. Its remains are mostly visible on the western edges of the plateau. During the reign of the Sisodia Rajputs more significant defence structure was constructed in the 15th century, when the royal entrance was relocated and fortified with seven gates. These gates are called, from the base to the hilltop, the Paidal Pol, Bhairon Pol, Hanuman Pol, Ganesh Pol, Jorla Pol, Laxman Pol, and Ram Pol, the final and main gate.

Chittor Fort Chittorgarh: Gates

The fort has total seven gates, namely the Padan Pol, Bhairon Pol, Hanuman Pol, Ganesh Pol, Jodla Pol, Laxman Pol, and the main gate named the Ram Pol (Lord Rama's Gate). All the gateways to the fort have been built as massive stone structures with secure fortifications for military defense. On the right of Suraj Pol is the Darikhana or Sabha (council chamber) behind which lie a Ganesha temple and the zenana (living quarters for women). A massive water reservoir is located towards the left of Suraj Pol. There is also a peculiar gate, called the Jorla Pol (Joined Gate), which consists of two gates joined together. The upper arch of Jorla Pol is connected to the base of Lakshman Pol. It is said that this feature has not been noticed anywhere else in India. The Lokota Bari is the gate at the fort's northern tip, while a small opening that was used to hurl criminals into the abyss is seen at the southern end.

Chittor Fort Chittorgarh: Vijay Stambha

The Vijay Stambha ( The Tower of Victory) or Jaya Stambha, called the symbol of Chittor and a particularly bold expression of triumph. It was constructed by Rana Kumbha to commemorate his victory over Mahmud Shah I Khalji, the Sultan of Malwa, in 1440 AD. It rises 37.2 metres (122 ft) over a 47 square feet (4.4 m2) base in nine stories accessed through a narrow circular staircase of 157 steps (the interior is also carved) up to the 8th floor, from where there is good view of the plains and the new town of Chittor.

Chittor Fort Chittorgarh: Kirti Stambha

Kirti Stambha (Tower of Fame) Built by the Bagherwal Jain merchant Jijaji Rathod. It is dedicated to Adinath, the first Jain tirthankar (revered Jain teacher). It is a 22-metre-high (72 ft) tower built on a 30-foot (9.1 m) base with 15 feet (4.6 m) at the top; it is adorned with Jain sculptures on the outside and is older (probably 12th century) and smaller than the Victory Tower.

Chittor Fort Chittorgarh: Rana Kumbha Palace

At the entrance gate near the Vijaya Stamba, Rana Kumbha's palace (in ruins), the oldest monument, is located. The palace included elephant and horse stables and a temple to Lord Shiva. Maharana Udai Singh the founder of Udaipur was born here. The palace is built with plastered stone. The remarkable feature of the palace is its splendid series of canopied balconies. Entry to the palace is through Suraj Pol that leads into a courtyard.

Chittor Fort Chittorgarh: Fateh Prakash Palace

Located near Rana Khumba palace, built by Rana Fateh Singh, the precincts have modern houses and a small museum.

Chittor Fort Chittorgarh: Gaumukh Reservoir

A spring feeds the tank from a carved cow's mouth in the cliff. This pool was the main source of water at the fort during the numerous sieges.

Chittor Fort Chittorgarh: Padmini's Palace

Padmini's Palace or Rani Padmini's Palace is a white building and a three storied structure (a 19th-century reconstruction of the original). It is located in the southern part of the fort. Chhatris (pavilions) crown the palace roofs and a water moat surround the palace. This style of the palace became the forerunner of other palaces built in the state with the concept of Jal Mahal (palace surrounded by water).

Chittor Fort Chittorgarh: Temples

Although the majority of temple structures represent the Hindu faith, most prominently the Kalikamata Temple (8th century), the Kshemankari Temple (825–850) the Kumbha Shyam Temple (1448) or the Adbuthnath Temple (15th–16th century), the hill fort also contains Jain temples, such as Sattaees Devari, Shringar Chauri (1448) and Sat Bis Devri (mid-15th century) Also the two tower memorials, Kirti Stambh (12th century) and Vijay Stambha (1433–1468), are Jain monuments. They stand out with their respective heights of 24 m and 37 m, which ensure their visibility from most locations of the fort complex.

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